Tag Archives: history

Think Like a Freak by by Steven D. Levitt & Stephen J. Dubner

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Think Like a Freak: The Authors of Freakonomics Offer to Retrain Your Brain by Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner
After the audiobook ends it gives you pieces of the authors’ other works and podcasts. They have weird ideas like carrying a jar of vomit round your neck and take a whiff every time you get hungry as the fastest way to lose weight… and being a conversation piece.

Notes:
– Lots of awkward and embarrassing stories of experts.
– The next generation should not continue the family business. Studies show it’s better to get in a fresh manager.
– Married people are happier… more like happier people are likelier to get married. Who wants to be with a sour puss.
– Stock market predictors <50% accurate. As good as chimp throwing darts.
– TV ads thought to be better than print. Randomised control trial was proposed. Print ads when not run didn’t reduce sales and the TV ads were run on days that people were already going to buy like Xmas.
– Even experts can’t tell difference between cheap and expensive wines. Dude makes fake restaurant to show that it’s all just another scheme. (Paras note: like well built stars get paid to say they use so and so supplements.)
– Teacher quality has dropped because smart women have better job options. But teacher skill doesn’t matter. American kids know less than other countries and it’s because of parents not the school system.
– How to win at hot-dog eating competitions. It’s artificial limits. Eg if you think 10 push-ups you get tired at 7. If you think 20 puch-ups you’ll tire at 17. The guy who ate double the record cut hotdogs with hands to reduce time biting. It’s easier to chew/swallow the sausage and sop the bun in warm water. Things like that.
– Black Americans die earlier than whites because of hypertension and heart disease. So slave traders used to lick the slaves to see how salty they were to gauge their health. Meanwhile the health of Africans elsewhere were no different to white Americans.
– Faeces from healthy person helps sick persons guts and other ailments. They call it faecal transplants or faecal therapy! Jokes about transpoosion, shit swap.
– Having fun is important to be successful. Love what you do.
– Kids are harder to fool by magicians especially because of their freakish height (basically because they’re short they see things from a different angle.
– A high nutrition diet can cost up to 10 times more than a junk food diet.
– Cash incentives work great but a cheaper way is finding out their herd mentality incentive. Experiment ran on moral, social, financial and herd mentality values. Look up Robert Cialdini experiment.
– Declared and revealed preferences. What people say and what they do is different.
– The trail with the don’t steal sign had more theft.
– People give money because of altruistic reasons or feel-good factor which is also called warm glow altruism or social pressure. But one guy tried a once and done method with 3 options. 1 – once and done, 2 – send letters twice a year, 3 – regular updates. People hardly checked ‘once and done’. People were twice as likely to donate compared to normal and also gave more money.
– Paying incentives to stop something usually makes it worse. E.g.s – HCFC gasses, cobras India, feral pigs in US and rats in South Africa.
– 6 incentive rules. 1 – What people really care about, 2 – Cheap for you, 3 – How they respond, 4 – Cooperative frame, 5 – Just coz it’s the right thing they won’t do it, 6 – Some people will take advantage.
– The whole van halen brown m&m game theory. No brown ones meant the hosts read the contract and did the line check.
– Story of secret bullet factory in Israel and their warm beer alarm so the British soldiers would call in advance to make sure the Israelis chilled the beers.
– Scam emails from Nigeria called Advanced fee fraud.
– Terrorist algorithms in banks. The main factor was looking for clients who did not get life insurance. Best part was they let out the secret so now they just had to sit and wait to see who got life insurance.
– The best way to persuade people, especially those not interested, is to tell stories.
– 3 forces that help against quitting.
1 – being a failure.
2 – sunk cost fallacy/concord fallacy/throwing good money/time/effort after bad.
3 – ignoring opportunity cost over concrete cost. What opportunity will you miss if you didn’t quit?
– Freakonomics radio podcast snippets included.
– Stats on tipping. Older, fatter, people and smokers tip more. More attractive women got more tips not so for men. Blonds, slender, bigger, breasts in 30s got better tips. If staff touch shoulder they get more more tip. Smiley face or squat down increases tips. Service quality for tips is weak. Blacks got tips less or none. Both blacks and whites will tip blacks less.
– Women won’t pick work or activities that are confrontational or competitive unless they grew up in cultures where women had equal or more power and equality.

Table of Contents
1. What Does It Mean to Think Like a Freak?
– An endless supply of fascinating questions . . .
– The pros and cons of breast-feeding, fracking, and virtual currencies . . .
– There is no magic Freakonomics tool . . .
– Easy problems evaporate; it is the hard ones that linger . . .
– How to win the World Cup . . .
– Private benefits vs. the greater good . . .
– Thinking with a different set of muscles . . .
– Are married people happy or do happy people marry? . . .
– Get famous by thinking just once or twice a week . . .
– Our disastrous meeting with the future prime minister.

2. The Three Hardest Words in the English Language
Why is “I don’t know” so hard to say? . . .
– Sure, kids make up answers but why do we? . . .
– Who believes in the devil? . . .
– And who believes 9/11 was an inside job? . . .
– “Entrepreneurs of error” . . .
– Why measuring cause-and-effect is so hard . . .
– The folly of prediction . . .
– Are your predictions better than a dart-throwing chimp? . . .
– The Internet’s economic impact will be “no greater than the fax machine’s” . . .
– “
Ultracrepidarianism” . . .
– The cost of pretending to know more than you do . . .
– How should bad predictions be punished? . . .
– The Romanian witch hunt . . .
– The first step in solving problems: put away your moral compass . . .
– Why suicide rises with quality of life— and how little we know about suicide . . .
– Feedback is the key to all learning . . .
– How bad were the first loaves of bread? . . .
– Don’t leave experimentation to the scientists . . .
– Does more expensive wine taste better?

3. What’s Your Problem?
– If you ask the wrong question, you’ll surely get the wrong answer . . .
– What does “school reform” really mean? . . .
– Why do American kids know less than kids from Estonia? . . .
– Maybe it’s the parents’ fault! . . .
– The amazing true story of Takeru Kobayashi, hot-dog-eating champion . . .
– Fifty hot dogs in twelve minutes! . . .
– So how did he do it? . . .
– And why was he so much better than everyone else? . . .
– “To eat quickly is not very good manners” . . .
– “The Solomon Method” . . .
– Endless experimentation in pursuit of excellence . . .
– Arrested! . . .
– How to redefine the problem you are trying to solve . . .
– The brain is the critical organ . . .
– How to ignore artificial barriers . . .
– Can you do 20 push-ups?

4. Like a Bad Dye Job, the Truth Is in the Roots
– Why a bucket of cash will not cure poverty and a planeload of food will not cure famine . . .
– How to find the root cause of a problem . . .
– Revisiting the abortion-crime link . . .
– What does Martin Luther have to do with the German economy? . . .
– How the “Scramble for Africa” created lasting strife . . .
– Why did slave traders lick the skin of the slaves they bought? . . .
– Medicine vs. folklore . . .
– Consider the ulcer . . .
– The first blockbuster drugs . . .
– Why did the young doctor swallow a batch of dangerous bacteria? . . .
– Talk about gastric upset! . . .
– The universe that lives in our gut . . .
– The power of poop.

5. Think Like a Child
– How to have good ideas . . .
– The power of thinking small . . .
– Smarter kids at $15 a pop . . .
– Don’t be afraid of the obvious . . .
– 1.6 million of anything is a lot . . .
– Don’t be seduced by complexity . . .
– What to look for in a junkyard . . .
– The human body is just a machine . . .
– Freaks just want to have fun . . .
– It is hard to get good at something you don’t like . . .
– Is a “no-lose lottery” the answer to our low savings rate? . . .
– Gambling meets charity . . .
– Why kids figure out magic tricks better than adults . . .
– “You’d think scientists would be hard to dupe” . . .
– How to smuggle childlike instincts across the adult border.

6. Like Giving Candy to a Baby
– It’s the incentives, stupid! . . .
– A girl, a bag of candy, and a toilet . . .
– What financial incentives can and can’t do . . .
– The giant milk necklace . . .
– Cash for grades . . .
– With financial incentives, size matters . . .
– How to determine someone’s true incentives . . .
– Riding the herd mentality . . .
– Why are moral incentives so weak? . . .
– Let’s steal some petrified wood! . . .
– One of the most radical ideas in the history of philanthropy . . .
– “The most dysfunctional $300 billion industry in the world” . . .
– A one-night stand for charitable donors . . .
– How to change the frame of a relationship . . .
– Ping-Pong diplomacy and selling shoes . . .
– “You guys are just the best!” . . .
– The customer is a human wallet . . .
– When incentives backfire . . .
– The “cobra effect” . . .
– Why treating people with decency is a good idea.

7. What Do King Solomon and David Lee Roth Have in Common?
– A pair of nice, Jewish, game-theory-loving boys . . .
– “Fetch me a sword!” . . .
– What the brown M&M’s were really about . . .
– Teach your garden to weed itself . . .
– Did medieval “ordeals” of boiling water really work? . . .
– You too can play God once in a while . . .
– Why are college applications so much longer than job applications? . . .
– Zappos and “The Offer” . . .
– The secret bullet factory’s warm-beer alarm . . .
– Why do Nigerian scammers say they are from Nigeria? . . .
– The cost of false alarms and other false positives . . .
– Will all the gullible people please come forward? . . .
– How to trick a terrorist into letting you know he’s a terrorist.

8. How to Persuade People Who Don’t Want to Be Persuaded
– First, understand how hard this will be . . .
– Why are better-educated people more extremist? . . .
– Logic and fact are no match for ideology . . .
– The consumer has the only vote that counts . . .
– Don’t pretend your argument is perfect . . .
– How many lives would a driverless car save? . . .
– Keep the insults to yourself . . .
– Why you should tell stories . . .
– Is eating fat really so bad? . . .
– The Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure . . .
– What is the Bible “about”? . . .
– The Ten Commandments versus The Brady Bunch.

9. The Upside of Quitting
– Winston Churchill was right—and wrong . . .
– The sunk cost fallacy and opportunity cost . . .
– You can’t solve tomorrow’s problem if you won’t abandon today’s dud . . .
– Celebrating failure with a party and cake . . .
– Why the flagship Chinese store did not open on time . . .
– Were the Challenger’s O-rings bound to fail? . . .
– Learn how you might fail without going to the trouble of failing . . .
– The $1 million question: “when to struggle and when to quit” . . .
– Would you let a coin toss decide your future? . . .
– “Should I quit the Mormon faith?” . . .
– Growing a beard will not make you happy . . .
– But ditching your girlfriend might . . .
– Why Dubner and Levitt are so fond of quitting . . .
– This whole book was about “letting go” . . .
– And now it’s your turn.

Acknowledgements
Notes
Index

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A brief history of Diwali in Jainism … thanks Jay

Diwali is one of the most popular festivals in india. For Jains it is a very important occasion. It is a festival of glory and achievement of Bhagwan Mahavira who attained nirvana on this day.

A brief history of diwali in jainism:
Diwali was known as Deepalika- the Festival of Lights. Deepak is a symbol of light of abolishing the darkness of ignorance.

Dhan Teras was known as Dhanya Teras in olden days. Before his nirvana,Bhagwan Mahavira started giving his last sermons on this day. Thus the day was known as Dhanya. Now it is called as Dhan as too much importance is attached to wealth.

Kali Chaudas
Bhagwan spoke continuously for 48 hours. His last sermons are recorded in one of our Aagams called the uttaradhyana sutra.

Diwali
Bhagwan left this world and attained Nirvana at Pavapuri. The light was gone forever and the whole world was enveloped in pitch darkness. Gods dispelled it with bright gems and humans lit earthen lamps. Lamps are lit to symbolize the dispelling of ignorance.

Padva
Gautam swami, the chief disciple of Bhagwan Mahavira attained keval gyana on this day.

Bhai dooj
After Bhagwan’s nirvana his brother king Nandivardhan was inconsolable due to grief. His sister, Sudershana called him to her house and comforted by giving him religious knowledge.
Thus the traditions found their way in today’s world. But let’s not forget the real significance of celebrating Diwali.
‘Ahimsa paramo dharma’ was Bhagwan’s teaching which is at the very heart of Jainism. Let’s celebrate an Eco Friendly Diwali. Protect jeevs and pray for peace towards all.

Happy Spiritual Diwali to you all

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35 Epic Cooking Fails

1. Someone thought this Pinterest recipe was a fun idea.

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2. These s’more cookies looked good (in theory).

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3. To be fair, it’s the pan’s fault.

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4. Cooking pasta in a coffee maker… almost genius. Almost.

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5. Oh boy.

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6. The humanity.

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7. Somewhere in Italy an angel lost its wings.

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8. This used to be a pizza. Now it’s in heaven. 

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9. Someone forgot to take these cheese melts out in time. 

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10. Yes dear, cupcakes can be chewy. NOT.

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11. Another cupcake fail makes history. 

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12. And another.

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13. And yet another.

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14. Seriously, I didn’t realize making cupcakes was so hard.

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15. Not sure what this is supposed to be, but I’m not sure I even want to know.

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16. If you can’t identify the meat, don’t eat it.

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17. Not. Even. Close.

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18. Actually, this is kind of brilliant.

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19. This person forgot how to use an electric kettle.

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20. How does something like this even happen?

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21. Aren’t cakes supposed to look appetizing?

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22. Lovely cake. Looks delicious.

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23. Just delicious.

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24. That’s not how you cook eggs.

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25. Or spaghetti squash.

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26. Genius.

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27. This used to be a cabbage.

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28. It actually takes talent to make rice look like this. 

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29. It’s unclear just what this was supposed to be.

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30. They ruined cookies. Forever.

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31. Pasta should never find a way to be frightening.

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32. Almost.

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33. Plastic is NOT the same thing as metal. It just isn’t.

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34. Someone managed to find a way to ruin donuts.

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35. Sure, a goldfish ham salad sounds like a great idea.

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What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures by Malcolm Gladwell

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What the Dog Saw: And Other Adventures

Not the most captivating books form Malcolm. Hell I think my audiobook was not even complete and I didn’t care… so most of the summary is taken from elsewhere. Update: As I typed down the table of contents I realised it’s not a bad book. I just can’t use most of the info in my life.

Notes:
– Paying extra for loreal because of the illusion of being worth it.
– Dropping 2 Alka-Seltzer instead of one in adverts and double sales.
– Scud missiles detection pictures and cancer diagnosis not done properly because of not well trained people mistaking trucks.
– Politics of sampling, copying. Intellectual property.
– Warnings and clues for 911 and Kenya bombing.
– Choking = thinking too much, panicking = thinking too little.
– Blacks fail in tests, whites can’t jump under stereotype threat.

Contents
PART 1 – Obsessives, Pioneers, and Other Varieties of Minor Genius
– The Pitchman: Ron Popeil and the Conquest of the American Kitchen
– The Ketchup Conundrum: Mustard Now Comes in Dozens of Varieties Why Has Ketchup Stayed the Same?
– Blowing Up: How Nassim Taleb Turned the Inevitability of Disaster into an Investment Strategy
– True Colours: Hair Dye and the Hidden History of Postwar America
– John Rock’s Error: What the Inventor of the Birth Control Pill Didn’t Know About Women’s Health
– What the Dog Saw: Cesar Millan and the Movements of Mastery

PART2 – Theories, Predictions, and Diagnoses
– Open Secrets: Enron, Intelligence, and the Perils of Too Much Information
– Million Dollar Murray: Why Problems like Homelessness May Be Easier to Solve Than to Manage
– The Picture Problem: Mammography, Air Power, and the Limits of Looking
– Something Borrowed: Should a Charge of Plagiarism Ruin Your Life?
– Connecting the Dots: The Paradoxes of Intelligence Reform
– The Art of Failure: Why Some People Choke and Others Panic
– Blowup: Who Can Be Blamed for a Disaster like the Challenger Explosion? No One, and We’d Better Get Used to It

PART 3 – Personality, Character, and Intelligence
– Late Bloomers: Why Do We Equate Genius with Precocity
– Most Likely to Succeed: How Do We Hire When We Can’t Tell Who’s Right for the Job?
– Dangerous Minds: Criminal Profiling Made Easy
– The Talen Myth: Are Smart People Overrated?
– The New-Boy Network: Do Job Interviews Really Tell Us?
– Troublemakers: What Pit Bulls Can Teach Us About Crime

Acknowledgements

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20 Clever Inventions You Probably Didn’t Know Were Made By Indians … thanx Nilesh

Indian inventions and discoveries have been instrumental in shaping the face of the current modern world. We picked up 20 such interesting findings out of a whole bunch that will make you go, “I didn’t know that”.

1. Buttons

buttons

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Buttons were first used in Mohenjo-daro for ornamental purpose rather than for fastening. They were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization by 2000 BCE.

 

2. Chess

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Chess developed out of Chaturanga, which is an ancient strategy board game developed during the Gupta Empire in India around the 6th century AD. Now you know why Vishwanathan Anand is such a pro, rag rag me is tarah… ;)

 

3. Prefabricated home and movable structure

prefabricated-home

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In 16th century Mughal India, during the reign of Akbar, the first prefabricated & movable structures were invented.

 

4. Ruler

ruler

Rulers were first used by the Indus Valley Civilization prior to 1500 BCE. Made of ivory, the rulers found during excavation, reveal the amazing accuracy of decimal subdivisions on it.

 

5. Shampoo

Shampoo

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The word ‘Shampoo’ is derived from chāmpo (चाँपो). It was initially used as a head massage oil for the Nawabs of Bengal during the Mughal Empire around 1762. It evolved into shampoo over the years.

 

6. Snakes and Ladders

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The game, Snakes & Ladders,  was invented in India as a game of morals. Later it spread to England and eventually introduced in the USA by game pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.

 

7. Cotton cultivation (We clothed the world, yay!)

cotton

The ancient Greeks used to wear animal skins and were not even aware of cotton. But Indians were sort of cool ;) and started cultivating cotton during the 5th – 4th millennium BCE in the Indus Valley Civilization. The word spread to the Mediterranean and beyond and soon everyone was ordering one from Flipkart. Well, pretty much.

 

8. Fibonacci Numbers

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The Fibonacci numbers were first described by Virahanka, Gopala  andHemachandra as an outgrowth of earlier writings by Pingala.

 

9. Decimal System, Quadratic formula and Zero!

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It was in 7th century CE when Brahmagupta found the first general formula for solving quadratic equations. The decimal system (or the Hindu number system), which was a precursor of the Arabic numeric system, was developed in India between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.

 

10. Suits Game

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The popular game of cards originated from India & was known as Krida-patram (which literally means “painted rags for playing”).

 

11. Cataract Surgery

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Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE) had the knowledge of performing cataract surgery. It spread to China from India. Greek scientists would visit India to get operations done and also to learn the nitty-gritties.

 

12. Diamond Mining

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Worldwide, India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of mines in Brazil in the 18th century. Almost 5000 years ago, diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India.

 

13. Water on Moon

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ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 made the startling discovery that our moon is not a dry ball of rocks. The discovery of lunar water is attributed to the Chandrayaan mission.

 

14.  Radio/Wireless communication

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We all know that Marconi received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for contribution to the development of wireless telegraphy. But the first public demonstration of radio waves for communication was made by Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose in 1895, two years prior to Marconi’s similar demonstration in England.

Sir Bose was posthumously credited (more than a century later) for his achievement. The fact remains that this discovery truly shaped the face of modern wireless communication.

 

15. Flush Toilets

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Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. These existed in most homes and were connected to a sophisticated sewage mechanism. The civilization was prominent in hydraulic engineering.

 

16. Binary Code

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Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.

 

17. Ink

ink

Many ancient cultures and civilizations independently discovered and prepared ink for writing purposes. The source of carbon pigment used in Indian Ink (called musi) used in ancient India, was India. Since 4th century BC, the practice of writing with ink with a sharp pointed needle was common in South India.

 

18. Steel & Metal works

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Ancient Indians were pioneers in metallurgy. High quality steel was produced, almost two thousand years before it was understood by the West. One of the most remarkable feat in metallurgy: creating a seamless celestial globe, was invented in Kashmir. It was earlier considered impossible to create a metal globe without seams.

So thanks to India, Iron Man can wear his suit now.

 

19. Fiber Optics

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Named as one of the 7 ‘Unsung Heroes’ by Fortune Magazine, Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, is widely recognized as the ‘Father of Fiber Optics’ for his pioneering work in Fiber Optics technology. Watch him speak eloquently on his entrepreneurial journey.

 

20. Plastic Surgery

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Yes, you heard it right. Indians were pioneers in Plastic Surgery too. It was carried out in India as early as 2000 BCE.

So, we’ve always been a cool country. ;)  History is testimony to it. So what’s stopping you from being innovative? Go, win the world.

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The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley

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The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley

I was going to bitch about how the book keeps going in circles and mostly about animals until past half way. Then it gets into some decent juice about human psychology, gender differences and soooo much more.

– This concept, that all progress is relative, has come to be known in biology by the name of the Red Queen, after a chess piece that Alice meets in Through the Looking-Glass, who perpetually runs without getting very far because the landscape moves with her: It is an increasingly influential idea in evolutionary theory, and one that will recur throughout the book. The faster you run, the more the world moves with you and the less you make progress. Life is a chess tournament in which if you win a game, you start the next game with the handicap of a missing pawn.

– Every success contains the seeds of its own overthrow.

– Red Queen is that she runs but stays in the same place. The world keeps coming back to where it started; there is change but not progress.

– Viruses, bacteria, and fungi, the causes of most diseases.

– Why different sexes? Tragedy of the commons. Like communism didn’t work or when an exceptional athlete is stuck in a 2nd rate team.

– Males have many small while females have few larger gametes. Mobile creatures usually have genders. Sessile don’t, and are usually hermaphroditic.

– Parents in good condition probably have male-biased litters of young; parents in poor condition probably have female-biased litters because mothers in poor condition is likely to produce a feeble son who will fail to mate at all, whereas her daughters can join harems and reproduce even when not in top condition.

– I think it was Korea that found a way to track sperm by dyeing it with fluorescent ink and sort xy genes.

– Women more than men can “marry up,” into a higher social and economic caste, so daughters of poor people are more likely to do well than sons.

– We consciously decide whether to consider people, we fall in love despite ourselves, we entirely fail to fall in love with people who fall in love with us.

– Fishers vs good genes: The Fisher (sexy-son, good-taste) advocates are those who insist that the reason peahens prefer beautiful males is that they seek heritable beauty itself to pass on to their sons, so that those sons may in turn attract females. The Good-gene people follow Alfred Russel Wallace (though they do not know it) in arguing that arbitrary and foolish as it may seem for a female to choose a male because his tail is long or his song loud, there is method in her madness. The tail or the song tells each female exactly how good the genes are of each male. The fact that he can sing loudly or grow and look after a long tail proves that he can father healthy and vigorous daughters and sons just as surely as the fishing ability of a tern tells his mate that he can feed a growing family. Ornaments and displays are designed to reveal the quality of genes.

– When a man wants to seduce a woman, he does not send her a copy of his bank statement but a pearl necklace. He does not send her his doctor ‘s report but lets slip that he runs twenty miles a week and never gets colds. He does not tell her what degree he got but instead dazzles her with wit: He does not display testaments to how thoughtful he is but sends her roses on her birthday. Each gesture has a message: I’m rich, I’m fit, I’m clever, I’m nice.

– This immune effect of testosterone is the reason that men are more susceptible to infectious diseases than women, a trend that occurs throughout the animal kingdom.

– Inca leaders had 1500 concubines and death to cheaters. Human history of harems, etc.

– Christians prevent sex because it was the reason for violence and trouble.

– Men whose wives have been with them all day ejaculate much smaller amounts than men whose wives have been absent all day. It is as if the males are subconsciously compensating for any opportunities for female infidelity that might be present.

– Of the many mental features that are claimed to be different between the sexes, four stand out as repeatable, real, and persistent in all psychological tests.
1st girls are better at verbal tasks.
2nd boys are better at mathematical tasks.
3rd boys are more aggressive.
4th boys are better at some visuo-spatial tasks and girls at others. (And, interestingly, gay men are more like women than heterosexual men in some of these respects.)

– Baby girls are more interested in smiling, communicating, and in people, boys in action and things.

– Shown cluttered pictures, boys select objects, girls people. Boys are instantly obsessed with dismantling, assembling, destroying, possessing, and coveting things. Girls are fascinated by people and treat their toys as surrogate people.

– A man who develops a preference for other men is a man who has a different gene that affects how his testicles develop or a different gene that affects how his brain responds to hormones or a different learning experience during the pubertal burst of testosterone—or some combination of these. A prenatal exposure to deficiency of testosterone increases the likelihood of a man becoming homosexual. Men with an extra X chromosome and men exposed in the womb to female hormones are more likely to be gay or effeminate, and effeminate boys do indeed grow up to be gay more often than other boys: Intriguingly, men who were conceived and born in periods of great stress, such as toward the end of World War II, are more often gay than men born at other times. Gays are also more often left-handed than heterosexuals. Studies show that homosexuality is heritable.

– Usual hip to waist ratio stuff that get mens attention.

Big up (kinda) to the PUAs that recommended this book.

Contents
– Acknowledgements
1 – Human Nature
2 – The Enigma
3 – The Power of Parasites
4 – Genetic Mutiny and Gender
5 – The Peacock’s Tale
6 – Polygamy and the Nature of Men
7 – Monogamy and the Nature of Women
8 – Sexing the Mind
9 – The Uses of Beauty
10 – The Intellectual Chess Game
Epilogue – The Self-Domesticated Ape
– Notes
– Bibliography
– Index

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